LTO Network uses
SHA256to create cryptographic hashes. The
SHA256hashing algorithms are used for creating public/secret key pairs.
ED25519scheme is applied to create and verify signatures.
Poly1305is used for asymmetric encryption.
Base58is used to create a string from an array of bytes.
If you want to create an application, you should find the implementation of these algorithms in your programming language.
Arrays of bytes (like strings and hashes) in the project are encoded by Base58 algorithm with Bitcoin alphabet.
When encoding a hash, use the raw bytes and not the hexadecimal notation.
Note that encoding is not encryption. You can decode a base58 encoded message without the need of any type of key.
- The string
hello worldis encoded as
- SHA256 hash
e3b0c44298fc1c149afbf4c8996fb92427ae41e4649b934ca495991b7852b855is encoded as
In general Live Contracts uses the 256-bit version of SHA-2 for encoding. SHA-2 is one of the most common hashing algorithms which means it's available for almost all platforms and programming languages.
When secure hashes are required, a combination of BLAKE2b and SHA256 are used.
BLAKE2b is supported by NaCl compatible libraries like libsodium as 'Generic hashing'. It's widely supported across platforms and languages.
The default method for signing is using ED25519. This is an EdDSA algorithm on curve25519. It is designed to be faster than existing digital signature schemes without sacrificing security.
ED25519 is well supported on across many platforms and languages.
There are many valid (not unique!) signatures for one message when using ED25519. Also, you should not rely on any information before the hash and/or signature are checked.
Bitcoin, Ethereum, and many other blockchains use ECDSA with the secp256k1 curve for signing transactions. Outside of the realm of blockchain, this curve is barely used and not well supported.
The most commonly used and well-supported Elliptic Curve is NIST P-256. This is an ECDSA method using the secp256p1 curve.
There are 3 algorithms involved for asymmetric encryption:
- Key exchange: X25519
- Encryption: XSalsa20 stream cipher
- Authentication: Poly1305 MAC
This is a public key encryption schema, where the public key is used to encrypt data and the private key is used to decrypt data.
X25519 is sometimes referred to as Curve25519.