Live Contracts



Live Contracts uses the SHA256 to create a cryptographic hashes. The Blake2b256 and Keccak256 hashing algorithms are used for creating public/secret key pairs. The ED25519 scheme is applied to create and verify signatures. X25519 is used to for asymmetric encryption. For symmetric encrypt use AES256 in Galois/Counter Mode (gcm). Base58 is used to create the string from of bytes.


Live Contracts relies on message brokers to share event chains between nodes. The message broker MUST use the AMQP 0-9-1 to communicate and SHOULD be available over a secured connection.

Key concepts

The Live Contracts specifications are described as JSON schema.

Event chain

The event chain is a miniature blockchain that is shared between parties involved in a contract or process. Each event is signed and that added referencing the previous event, forming a chain. All information of the system is derived from event chains.


An identity within the event chain. The identity is used for authentication and authorization. An identity is not a user, a user has an identity for each event chain it's participating in.


A Live Contract scenario is a definition of procedure as a Finite State Machine (FSM). As an FSM, the scenario can be visualized as flowchart and instantiated as a process.


In a process an action may be performed to trigger a state change or to update the process projection. For each action in the scenario, the $schema property MUST be set which is used to execute an action of to display it correctly in the UI.


An actor is an identity or a group of identities that participate on a process. The actors are predefined in a scenario and instantiated for the process.

Data instruction

Data instructions allow you to dynamically set properties of a state or actions when they are instantiated using data from the projected process.


A process is an instantation of a scenario. It is traversable, at any moment you are at a specific point in the process. A process is also a deterministic projection, generated by processing responses following the update instructions and transitions of the scenario.


Executing an action in a process always yields a response. This is regardless of whether the action is performed manually by the user of automatically by the node. A response may update the process projection and/or trigger a state transition.
Documentation for creating and running workflows can be found on

Node-to-node communication

Chain request

A node may request a chain or a portion of a chain. When an identity is registers, a node might request the full event chain for that identity. If a node receives an event, but can't find the corresponding previous event, it will request the missing event.


A node is required to validate if an event is valid before adding it to the event chain. Events that are invalid may be rejected.

Conflict resolution

In any decentralized system conflicts can arise. Multiple nodes may add an event at the same time or a node might miss an event causing it to branch the chain. Because an event represents something that happened off-chain, we can't simply drop events instead they need to be added in such a way that it's visible that a conflict occurred.